Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: After a 2 week placebo run-in period, eligible patients inadequately controlled on long-acting, intermediate-acting or premixed insulin (HbA1c ≥7.5% and ≤11%), were randomised 1:1 to the addition of once-daily sitagliptin 100 mg or matching placebo over a 24-week study period. The study capped the proportion of randomised patients on insulin plus metformin at 75%. Further, the study capped the proportion of randomised patients on premixed insulin at 25%. The metformin dose and the insulin dose were to remain stable throughout the study. The primary endpoint was HbA1c change from baseline at week 24.
Results: Mean baseline characteristics were similar between the sitagliptin (n = 322) and placebo (n = 319) groups, including HbA1c (8.7 vs. 8.6%), diabetes duration (13 vs. 12 years), body mass index (31.4 vs. 31.4 kg/m2), and total daily insulin dose (51 vs. 52 IU), respectively. At 24 weeks, the addition of sitagliptin significantly (p < 0.001) reduced HbA1c by 0.6% compared with placebo (0.0%). A greater proportion of patients achieved an HbA1c level < 0.001). Similar HbA1c reductions were observed in the patient strata defined by insulin type (long-acting and intermediate-acting insulins or premixed insulins) and by baseline metformin treatment. The addition of sitagliptin significantly (p < 0.001) reduced fasting plasma glucose by 15.0 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/l) and 2-h postmeal glucose by 36.1 mg/dl (2.0 mmol/l) relative to placebo. A higher incidence of adverse experiences was reported with sitagliptin (52%) compared with placebo (43%), due mainly to the increased incidence of hypoglycaemia (sitagliptin, 16% vs. placebo, 8%). The number of hypoglycaemic events meeting the protocol-specified criteria for severity was low with sitagliptin (n = 2) and placebo (n = 1). No significant change from baseline in body weight was observed in either group.
Conclusion: In this 24-week study, the addition of sitagliptin to ongoing, stable-dose insulin therapy with or without concomitant metformin improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: sitagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, DPP-4 inhibitor, insulin, type 2 diabetes Received 23 July 2009; returned for revision 30 September 2009; revised version accepted 2 October 2009