Effect of Initial Combination Therapy With Sitagliptin, a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, and Metformin on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
OBJECTIVE — To assess the efficacy and safety of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — In a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 1,091 patients with type 2 diabetes and A1C 7.5–11% were randomized to one of six daily treatments: sitagliptin 100 mg/metformin 1,000 mg (S100/ M1000 group), sitagliptin 100 mg/metformin 2,000 mg (S100/M2000 group), metformin 1,000 mg (M1000 group), metformin 2,000 mg (M2000 group) (all as divided doses administered twice daily [b.i.d.]), sitagliptin 100 mg q.d. (S100 group), or placebo. Patients who had an A1C >11% or a fasting glucose value >280 mg/dl after the run-in period were not eligible to be randomized; these patients could participate in an open-label substudy and were treated with S100/M2000 for 24 weeks.
RESULTS — The mean baseline A1C was 8.8% in the randomized patients. The placebosubtracted A1C change from baseline was -2.07% (S100/M2000), -1.57% (S100/M1000), -1.30% (M2000), -0.99% (M1000), and -0.83% (S100) (P< 0.001 for comparisons versus placebo and for coadministration versus respective monotherapies). The proportion of patients achieving an A1C< 7% and < 6.5% was 66 and 44%, respectively, in the S100/M2000 group (P< 0.001 vs. S100 or M2000). For the open-label cohort (n = 117; baseline A1C 11.2%) treated with S100/M2000, the within-group mean A1C change from baseline was -2.9%. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low (0.5–2.2%) across active treatment groups and not significantly different from that in the placebo group (0.6%). The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse experiences was similar for coadministration therapies compared with their respective metformin monotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS — The initial combination of sitagliptin and metformin provided substantial and additive glycemic improvement and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes.